# Author: amankabra4

• ## Implementing Heuristics and Metaheuristics in Python

Heuristics and metaheuristics are optimization techniques that aim to find good solutions to complex problems in a reasonable amount of time. While heuristics are typically simple, problem-specific algorithms that are designed to quickly find good solutions, metaheuristics are more general-purpose optimization algorithms that are designed to explore the search space more thoroughly in order to […]

• ## Welcome file

Linear programming (LP) is a mathematical optimization technique used to find the maximum or minimum value of an objective function subject to constraints represented by linear equations or inequalities. The objective function and the constraints are defined in terms of decision variables, which are the values that are being optimized. The goal of linear programming […]

• ## Zen: The central premise. And promise.

The core of Zen is not meditation. Strangely, it is not. Rather, it is the notion that the “second tier sufferings” (a phrase I coined; I’ll define that in a moment) one faces is entirely a function of the state of one’s mind. First tier sufferings are the ones associated with physical, mental, and emotional […]

• ## Question Answering using BERT

Final In [ ]: !pip install simpletransformers In [ ]: from simpletransformers.question_answering import QuestionAnsweringModel, QuestionAnsweringArgs model = QuestionAnsweringModel(model_name="bert-large-uncased-whole-word-masking-finetuned-squad",model_type="bert") In [ ]: context_text = "After being relatively inactive since 2014, the Hunga Tonga volcano erupted on 20 December 2021, sending particulates into the stratosphere. A large plume of ash was visible from Nukuʻalofa, the capital city of Tonga, about 70 km (45 […]

• ## The fundamental issue in determining entity level causality

Let denote the outcome, where denotes the entity being examined (for instance, the individual) and denotes the treatment. Individual Treatment Effect (ITE) is then defined as the difference in the outcome between the two scenarios: with treatment and without treatment. Mathematically, it is represented as . However, there is a fundamental problem with such a […]